- The Definition of Curriculum
The term curriculum has many different defintion just as the curriculum development process has many alternative approaches. The curriculum is generally defined as a “Plan” developed to facilitate the teaching/learning process under the direction and guidance of school, college or university and its staff members. Many curriculum theorists consider that the curriculum includes all of thr planned activities and events which take place under the auspicies of educational instituition.
According to Hass (1987) the curriculum is all of the experience that individual learners have in a program of education whose purpose is to achieve broad goals and related specific objectives, which is planned in terms of framework of theory and research or past and present professional practice. Meanwhile, Jack Richard in his book which entitled Curriculum Development in Language Teaching pointed out that Curriculum is an educational programe which covers: 1) the educational purpose of the programme (the ends), 2) the content, teaching procedures and learning experiences which will be necessary to achieve this purpose (the means) and 3) some means for assessing whether or not the educational ends have been achieved. In addition, National education figure, Nasution (1999) state that the curriculum is a set of plans and arrangements on the objectives, content and teaching materials and methods used to guide the implementation of instructional activities to achieve certain educational goals. Objectives include the national education goals as well as conformance to specification, state and regional potential, education unit and learners. Therefore, the curriculum prepared by the educational unit to allow adjustment of educational programs to the needs and potential in the region.
Tyler maintains that the curriculum should be based on four sets of determinants: first, the philosophy of community, the school, and teachers. Second, the expectations, needs and demands of society. Third, the nature of the learner (level of phsical, mental, and phsychological growth and development) and, Fourth, the nature of dicipline to be taught (contentg). From all curriculum theorists’ opinion, we can take conclusion that the term curriculum refers to a variety of things, including the courses taught in a school, or program, the document that list the course taught, a set of teaching materials that are organized in some sequence of framework, or a framework for selecting and organizing learning experience.
The History of Curriculum in Indonesia
In the history of Indonesia‘s education, national education curriculum has experienced many changes, namely in the years 1947, 1952, 1964, 1968, 1975, 1984, 1994, 2004 and the latest is 2006. The change is a logical consequence of the change the political system, social, cultural, economic, and science. The entire national curriculum is designed based on the same basis, the Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution, the difference is the emphasis on basic education goals and implementation approach.
- Curriculum 1968 and before
The first curriculum has a name Subject Plan 1947 (Rencana Pelajaran 1947). At that time, Indonesia‘s education curriculum in the Netherlands and Japan education system influenced. Rencana Pelajaran 1947 organized to replace the Netherlands education system. The curriculum was developed as development conformism, which emphasizes the establishment of the Indonesian people character.
In the year 1952, Indonesia experienced curriculum improvement. In the year 1952 is the name given Unravels Subject Plan 1952 (Rencana Pelajaran Terurai 1952). This leads to the curriculum of national education system. The 1952 curriculum is that every lesson plan must consider the content of subjects connected with everyday life.
In 1964, Indonesia improved the national education curriculum, which is known as the Education Plan 1964. Curriculum 1964, is critically concerned with science, so that the learning program focused on Pancawardhana (Hamalik, 2004), namely the development of moral, intellectual, emotional/artistic skills, and physical. Changes in the structure of the education curriculum Pancawardhana become the soul of Pancasila, knowledge base, and a special skill, written in the Curriculum 1968. Curriculum 1968. has a goal to form a human Pancasila sincere, strong, and healthy physical, enhance skills and acumen physical, moral, moral character, and religious.
- Curriculum 1975
The curriculum 1975 prepared as a substitute for the curriculum 1968, where changes were made using the following approach.
- Integrative approach adopted in the sense that any lessons have meaning and role of support to the achievement of goals more integrated.
- Emphasizing the efficiency and effectiveness in terms of resources and time.
- Confessional approach instructional system, known as Development Procedure of Instructional System (Pengembangan Prosedur Sistem Instruksional). That system always leads to the achievement of specific goals, can be defined and measured in the form of student behavior.
- Influenced behavior psychology that emphasizes the stimulus to response and training (drill).
c. Curriculum 1984
By the year 1983, the curriculum 1975 is considered no longer compatible with the needs of the community and the demands of science and technology. In general, the basic curriculums 1975 change to the curriculum 1984 are as follows.
- There is a clash between the field of study curriculum materials with the ability of the students
- There is a gap between the program and the implementation of the curriculum in schools
- Too much curriculum content to be taught.
- Procurement of new courses (such as in high school) to meet the needs of employment.
d. Curriculum 1994
In the curriculum 1984, the learning process emphasizes the theory of learning and less attention to the content of lessons. Curriculum 1994 created as the completion of curriculum 1984 and accordance implemented with the Law no. 2 in 1989 about National Education System. This change takes effect on the system of learning time, that is the change of the semester to the quarter system. During the curriculum 1994 implementation appear some problems, mainly as a result of the tendency to approach content oriented, including the following.
- Student load is too heavy because the number of subjects and substance of each of the subjects is too much.
- Competency-Based Curriculum–Version KTSP (Level Curriculum Education Unit)
Improving quality and relevance and efficiency of education management, equity realized the opportunity of education programs in 9-year compulsory education. Improvement of the quality of education is directed to improve the quality of Indonesian human seutuhnya through olah–hati, olah–pikir, olah–rasa and sports that have the competitiveness in facing global challenges. Increasing the relevance of education is intended to produce graduates with the appropriate charges based on the needs of potential natural resources of Indonesia. Increasing the efficiency of education management is done through the implementation of school-based management and management of education is planned, effective and sustainable.
The implementation of Law No. 20 of 2003 on National Education System is described in a number of regulations, among others, Government Regulation No. 19 Year 2005 on National Education Standards. Government Regulation is landing on the need to provide structured and carried out eight national education standards, namely: (1) the content of standards, (2) a standard process, (3) graduate competency standards, (4) the standard of teachers and staff‘s, (5) standard facilities and infrastructure, (6) management standard, the standard financing, and (7) assessment of educational standards.
The curriculum is understood as a set of plans and the setting of objectives, content, and study ways and used as a guide providing learning activities to achieve certain goals of education, then rising with Government Regulation No. 19 in 2005, the government has lead to implement the education curriculum in the form of the level of the education curriculum, the curriculum developed by the operational and implemented in each educational unit. Substantially, the (read: naming) Curriculum Level Education Unit (KTSP) to further implement the existing regulations, namely PP No. 19/2005. However, the essence and the content of the direction of development are still characterized by the achievement of packages of competence
(and not on a thorough not subject matter), namely:
- Emphasis on student competency ketercapaian both individual and classical.
- Results-oriented learning (learning Outcomes) and diversity.
- It is in learning to use the approach and methods vary.
- Source of learning not only teachers, but also other sources of learning that meet the educational elements.
- Emphasis on the assessment process and results of study in an effort to control or achievement of a competency.
There are fundamental differences compared with the previous competency-based curriculum (version 2002 and 2004), that schools are given full authority to plan for education to the standards that have been set, starting from the goal, the vision – mission, structure and cargo curriculum, the burden of learning, a calendar of education, to the syllabi development.
Review on Curriculum and Materials Development
The Principles underlying KTSP (School Based Curriculum) in Indonesia
KTSP Emphasis is on developing the ability to do (competence) and tasks with specific performance standards so the results can be felt by students in the form of mastery of a set of specific competencies. This educational program standard device should be able to deliver students to have a competency of knowledge, and values used in various fields of life.
Indeed, KTSP is a curriculum that reflects the knowledge, skills and attitudes which refers to the concept of education as suggested by Bloom, which in turn can improve students’ potentials optimally. Accordingly, the curriculum is prepared to foster the learning process in schools oriented mastery competencies that have been determined by integrative. OH developed is able to adapt to various changes (containing the basic principles, are flexible in accordance with the times) and its development through the accreditation process that allows the subjects can be modified within their growing demands. Thus, this curriculum is the development of knowledge, understanding, abilities, values, attitudes and interests, to perform a skill or task in the form of skills and sense of responsibility. Furthermore, this curriculum is a curriculum design that was developed based on a number of specific competencies, so that after completing a certain educational level, students are expected to master a series of competencies and apply them in later life.
KTSP implementation in Indonesian education system does not just change the curriculum, but it involves fundamental changes in the education system. Application of KTSP requires a paradigm shift in teaching and schooling, because the application of KTSP not only caused changes in concepts, methods and strategies of teachers in teaching, but also concerning the pattern of thought to carry away, philosophically, the commitment of teachers, schools and education stakeholders.
In KTSP placed teachers as facilitators and mediators who help keep students’ learning process goes well. The main attention on students learning, not on discipline or the teacher. The function of a facilitator or mediator that means, namely: (1) to provide learning experiences that enable students are responsible to make design and process; (2) provide or provide activities that stimulate students’ curiosity and help them to express ideas, provide the means that stimulating students to think productively, provide opportunities and experiences of conflict, (3) monitor, evaluate, and indicates whether the student thought the road or not. Teacher shows and questioned whether students apply knowledge to deal with new problems. Teachers help students evaluate hypotheses and conclusions.
Mulyasa (2006: 11) defines School-based Curriculum or KTSP as a curriculum in a school level development that suites to the level ability of the students, the characteristics of the school and the region, the social characteristics of the surrounding, and the characteristics of its pupils. Based on National Education Standard Board, 2006 it is explained that School–based Curriculum is an operational curriculum that is arranged and done by each school/educational institution.
The guidelines of development School-based Curriculum are: (1) Standard of Content (Government Regulation No.22/2006), (2) The Graduate of Standard Competence (Government Regulation No.23/2006), the arrangement of guiding School-based Curriculum from BSNP (National Education Standard Board (BSNP 2006). The principles of the development of School-based Curriculum based on Government Regulation No.22/2006 are the center of the potency, development, need, student’s need and their environment-oriented where it stands, variety and integral, perceptive to the science development of technology and art relevance to life needs, comprehensive and continuous, lifelong learning, and balance between the national purpose and region purpose.
Dr. H Larry Winecoff described the seven steps curriculum development process as follows:
Assess needs and clarify determinants (what content should be taught? Who decides what the content should cover and what the general purposes should be? How can the determinants be met).
Formulate philosophy, mission, and general students outcomes (What is the philosophy and mission of the institution?)
Establish and sequence courses and course syllabi (what are the short term and long term learning outcomes expected of students in the cognitive, affective, and phychomotor domains?).
Identity alternative teaching-learning strategies and resources (what resources are needed?)
Inventory existing learning resources materials and resolve constrains.
Develop spesific instructional plan with objectives, activities, resources, and evaluation.
Evaluate curriculum effectiveness and revise as required.
B. KTSP development principles:
- Centered on the potential, progress, needs and interests of learners and their environment.
The curriculum was developed based on the principle that learners has a central position to develop their competence in order a human being faithful and obedient to God’s compassion Esa, morality, healthy, knowledgeable, capable, creative, independent and becomes citizens of a democratic and accountable. For support the achievement of these goals competence development adjusted for potential learners, progress, needs, and interests of learners as well as environmental demands.
2. Diverse and integrated
The curriculum was developed with attention to diversity learner characteristics, local conditions, and levels and types of education, without distinction of religion, ethnicity, culture and customs, as well as socioeconomic status and gender. The curriculum includes substance mandatory component of curriculum content, local content, and development an integrated self, and have been prepared in the relevance and sustainability antar substansi meaningful and appropriate.
3. Response to the development of science and art
The curriculum was developed on the basis of the awareness that science knowledge, technology and art of growing dynamically and by Therefore the spirit and content of the curriculum encourages students to followed and properly utilize the development of science knowledge, technology and art.
4. Be relevant to the needs of life
Curriculum development conducted by involving stakeholders interests (stakeholders) to ensure the relevance of education with needs of life, including life community, business world and the world of work. Therefore, development of personal skills, thinking skills, social skills, academic skills, and skills is a vocational necessity.
5. Comprehensive and continuous
The substance of the curriculum covers all dimensions of competency, field scholarly study and subjects who planned and presented for all sustainable levels of education.
6. Long Life Learning
The curriculum is directed to the development process, acculturation and empowerment of learners that lasted a lifetime. The curriculum reflects the linkages between the elements of education formal, non–formal and informal, to conditions and demands an environment that is always evolving and the development direction human beings.
7. Balance between national interests and regional interests
The curriculum was developed by taking into account the national interests and local interests to build a social life, state and nation. National interests and the interests of area must complement and empower in line with the motto Unity in Diversity within the framework of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia.
The Implementation of Genre Based Approach In Learning English
Teaching is lifelong learning, a balancing between knowing and experimenting. Based on the Decree of the Ministry of Education and Culture No.096/1967 (12 December 1967) “Fungsi dan Tujuan Pengajaran Bahasa Inggris pada Lembaga-lembaga Pendidikan Tingkat Lanjutan dalam Lingkungan Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan” (the function and the objective of English teaching in educational institution in the next grade is in the environment of educational cultural department). The background of teaching English is “maximum development of human and economic resources” to accelerate the national development in order to achieve the justice society cannot be done maximally by only using Indonesian language because science and technology is stated in foreign language especially English. So, English needs to be learnt.
The objective of teaching English based on the Decree of the Ministry of Education and Culture No. 096/1967 is to develop working knowledge of English reflected from: (1) effective reading ability (2) ability to understand spoken English (3) writing ability and (4) speaking ability. Successful teaching is the result of dynamic interactions among curriculum and syllabus design, teachers and students, methodology and instructional materials.
The KTSP curriculum suggests that the teaching of English as a foreign language in Indonesia should be text-based. It means that teachers are encouraged to used different kinds of text, such as narrative, recount, descriptive, procedure, and etc. Hayland (2004) elaborates the seven advantages of genre based aprroach in teaching writing as follows: 1) Explicit: makes clear what is to be learned to facilitate the acquisition of writing skills. 2) Sytematic: provides a coherent framework for focussing on both language and context. 3) Needs-based: ensures that course objective and content are derived from students need 4) Supportive: gives teacher a central role in scaffolding student learning and creativity 5) Empowering: provides access to the patterns and possibilities of variation in valued text 6) critical: provide the resource for students to understand and challenge valued discourses, and 7) consciousness raising: increases teacher awareness of texts and confidently advise students on their writing. Meanwile, Helena (2004) in Feeze and Joyce suggest that Genre-Approach is the most effective methodology for implementing a text-based. Appraisals towards Genre-based Approach can be understood when one examines the two cycles and four stages suggested by the 2004 English Curriculum (Hayland2004: 10-11). To implement the 2004 English Curriculum the two cycles and four stages recommended by Helena (in Hammond et al.1992: 7) consist of two cycles of written and spoken building and four stages consists of Building knowledge of Field (BKOF), Modeling Construction of the text (MOT), Joint Construction of the Text (JCT), and Independent Construction of the Text (ICT).
However, in Indonesia some problems arises concerning how effective the provided in-service teacher training is at developing teachers’ understanding about the genre approach and the way they should apply this approach in their classroom. According to my observation, there is still much cofusion centres on understanding the conceptual theory of the genre based approach and its pedagogical application in the classroon. In addition, another problem that arises from the implemetation of this approach is the appropriateness of the genre based approach to be implemented in the Indonesia contex because English is a foreign language. In the Australian context, this approach is aimed at developing the students’ literacy skills in writing and reading in the context of English as a first language and second language (Wales,1993). It assumed that students with English as a first language have already developed the ability to speak and listen from their early childhood.
- Two Cycles and Four Stages
To implement the KTSP curriculum especially in teaching-learning English teacher ought to familiar with the two cycles and four stages as recommended are represented in the following diagram:
The first stage is building knowledge of the field (BKOF), aims at providing students with background knowledge of the topic. In this stage, the focus is on the content of information and the language of genre of the text that is going to be used. Throughout this stage, the teacher and students will cooperatively build up a shared knowledge of the field. The second stage is Modelling of Text (MOT) with the aims to help students familiarize themselves with the purpose, generic structure, and language features of genre. So, the students can understand one of text type. The third stage known as Join Construction of Text (JCT). The aim of this stage is to show students how a text is produced. At this stage, the students try to develop spoken texts with their peers and with the help from the teachers. Hopefully, students can create different announcement and conversations.Finally, in the fourth stage is Independent Construction of text (ICT). In this stage students are expected ready to work independently to produce their own texts within the choosen genre.
Some Problems in Implementing Genre Based Approach at Classroom
The implementation of the KTSP curriculum in the field has faced four main constrain. The first, the number of students is so large and diversity – in term of their motivation level, intellectual capability, cultural backgrounds, and access to educational resources – is so high that it’s hard to implement the KTSP curriculum.
The second constrain, is the budget shortage. Several implications of this budget shortage include the large class size, the low teacher salary and the lack of educational resources. No matter how good curriculum guideline is, even an excellent teacher would find it extremely hard to deliver the KTSP syllabus effectively in a cless of fourthy to fifhty students. This situation is worsened by the low salary. The majority of teachers have to do some moonlighting work after school and thus are not able to put enough energy and time into making class preparation, improving their quality and enhancing their professional development.
The third constraint is the nature of EFL learning environtment. Indonesia doesn’t provide adequate exposure to English for the majority of the learners. This is perhaps used to be a universal constraint among other countries where English is used as a foreign language. People did not have ready access to read and listen to english materials. Besides, at the immediate level, there are no urgent real needs for the majority of Indonesians – as well as no adequate resources – to develop communicative competence in English.
The last constraint is there has been mismatch between the commitment to competence anf the insistance of the Ministry of Education to sustain the national examination for junior and senior high school levels. The national exam frenzy drives teachers to teach to the test and drill their students for several months of their last year in high school.
Summary and Recommendation
the term curriculum refers to a variety of things, including the courses taught in a school, or program, the document that list the course taught, a set of teaching materials that are organized in some sequence of framework, or a framework for selecting and organizing learning experience.
- In the history of Indonesia‘s education, national education curriculum has experienced many changes, namely in the years 1947, 1952, 1964, 1968, 1975, 1984, 1994, 2004 and the latest is 2006. The change is a logical consequence of the change the political system, social, cultural, economic, and science. The entire national curriculum is designed based on the same basis, the Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution, the difference is the emphasis on basic education goals and implementation approach.
- KTSP curriculum development are: 1) Centered on the potential, progress, needs and interests of learners and their environment. 2) Diverse and integrated 3) Response to the development of science and art 4) Be relevant to the needs of life 5) Comprehensive and continuous 6) Long Life Learning 7) Balance between national interests and regional interests.
- To implement the 2004 English Curriculum the two cycles and four stages recommended by Helena (in Hammond et al.1992: 7) consist of two cycles of written and spoken building and four stages consists of Building knowledge of Field (BKOF), Modeling Construction of the text (MOT), Joint Construction of the Text (JCT), and Independent Construction of the Text (ICT).
Each school conduct a through need analysis before adopting the most appropriate curriculum.
Each school should add, modify, and leave out competencies to suit their own context to make a more realistic allignment of curricular objevtives and students’needs.
Each school should decide to set advanced competencies in their English curriculum, the very first step to take is to improve the quality of their English teachers themselves.
It’s time that the scholarship and fellowship be directed also secondary school teachers rather than to university teacher only.
The teacher certification program required in the Bill of teachers and lectures (UU Guru dan Dosen) should be given to the valid and qualified institution to carry out the certification.